Spot welding is one of the most common methods in sheet metal joining. Thousands of spot points can be presented in one automobile and other product due to its economical, rapid production, costs, and reliability. The sheet specimens of carbon steel, aluminum alloy, and stainless steel, etc., in a strip form are welded using a spot welding process. The strips of lap-joints and curved peel-joints configurations have widely used in the systematic testing of the welding parameters such as weld current, and weld time. The direct relation between the weld area and the joint strength depends on the heat generation. The cracks have observed in a welded structure during the working under loading. They are presented around the spot nugget at welded temperature due to incomplete melting and inappropriate electrode pressure, which causes an expulsion of molten metal.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The Hyundai Theta (G4KC) is a gasoline 4-cylinder automobile engine family. The third all-aluminum engine of Hyundai Motor Company debuted in the fourth-generation Hyundai Sonata sedan (codenamed NF), which was unveiled in August 2004 in South Korea. It features hollow stainless-steel DOHC with powder-metal cam lobes, pent-roof combustion chamber and shimless bucket tappets in the cylinder head. BorgWarner Morse TEC supplies the complete timing system which uses the company's proprietary silent timing chains. Continuously variable valve timing (CVVT) works on the intake side. The aluminum alloy engine block, which is formed using a high-pressure die-cast method, has a unique Metaldyne-supplied cassette-type balance shaft module with a two-stage oil pump built-in. In the lower-end, the block is reinforced by a ladder frame. Other notable features include fracture-split sinter-forged connecting rods and a stainless-steel exhaust manifold.
The topic for this investigation was chosen from an industrial problem experienced by Stainless Steel manufacturer when a hot rolled coil of AISI Type 441 dual-stabilised with Ti and Nb was found to be brittle after hot rolling. AISI Type 441 is being used in the manufacturing of automobile catalytic converter casing, which operates at the temperature region of 900°C and is frequently subjected to temperature variations as the automobile are used intermittently. The respective materials batch was used to evaluate qualitative and quantitatively the Laves phase precipitation during various heat treatment procedures. The time-temperature-precipitation (TTP) determined from the transformation kinetic curves after isothermal annealing at the temperature range of 600-850°C, shows two classical C noses for Laves phase transformation. By applying analytical technique such electron microscopy in combination with computation thermodynamic (CALPHAD approach) to predict precisely any microstructural changes during heat treatment or service life at elevated temperatures and hence, this contributed substantially to any further development of dual stabilised stainless steels.
The DeLorean Motor Company (DMC) was a short-lived automobile manufacturer formed by automobile industry executive John DeLorean in 1975. It is remembered for the one model it produced the distinctive stainless steel DeLorean DMC-12 sports car featuring gull-wing doors and for its brief and turbulent history, ending in receivership and bankruptcy in 1982. Near the end, in a desperate attempt to raise the funds his company needed to survive, John DeLorean was filmed appearing to accept money to take part in drug trafficking, but was subsequently acquitted of charges brought against him on the basis of entrapment. The DeLorean DMC-12 shot to worldwide fame in the Back to the Future movie trilogy as the car transformed into a time machine by eccentric scientist Doctor Emmett L. Brown, although the company had ceased to exist before the first movie was made. Texas entrepreneur Stephen Wynne started a separate company using the "Delorean Motor Company" name after acquiring the remaining parts inventory of DeLorean Motor Company.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Elwood P. Haynes (October 14, 1857 April 12, 1925) was an American inventor, metallurgist, automotive pioneer, entrepreneur and industrialist. He invented the metal alloys stellite and martensitic stainless steel and designed one of the earliest automobiles in the United States. His design is recognized as the first that was acceptable for mass production and, with the Apperson brothers, he formed the first company in the United States to profitably produce automobiles. Because of his many advances in the automotive industry, he is sometimes called the Father of the Automobile. Early in his career, while serving as a superintendent at gas and oil companies during Indiana's gas boom, Haynes invented several devices important to the advance of the natural gas industry
Stainless steel is the most versatile and widely used material in the industries.It is used in each and every aspects of life like infrastructure development, defense,heavy machinery industries, automobile etc.Industries use conventional welding processes to weld stainless steel. The basic problems that are associated with those conventional welding processes like GMAW, GTAW and arc welding of stainless steel are hydrogen embrittlement, distortion and non ecofriendly nature.Friction stir welding(FSW) being a solid state welding process is free from most of defects usually produced in fusion welding processes (because of considerably lower heat input and absence of melting) . Apart from this, it has many advantages like improved mechanical properties of weldment, graining refining, and improves corrosion resistance, improved productivity and no requirement of filler material. In this book,feasibilty of welding of Stainless Steel 304 using FSW has been attempted using innovative fixture design. FSW operation is performed on retrofitted vertical milling machine. Classification of Stainless steels, their properties and applications has also explained in depth.